The holiday season is one of the most
dangerous times of the year for household fires, so take note of these tips to
reduce your risk.
Residential fires during the holiday season
are more frequent, more costly, and more deadly than at any other time of the
year. The U.S. Fire Administration (USFA) reports more than double the number
of open-flame fires on Christmas Day than on an average day, and about twice as
many on New Year's Day. And when those fires occur, they do more damage:
Property loss during a holiday fire is 34% greater than in an average fire, and
the number of fatalities per thousand fires is nearly 70% higher. When the
source of the fire is a highly flammable Christmas tree, the toll in property
and lives is even greater.
To keep your household from becoming a
holiday fire statistic, here are some safety tips to follow.
Cooking is the top cause of holiday fires,
according to the USFA. The most common culprit is food that's left unattended.
It's easy to get distracted; take a pot holder with you when you leave the
kitchen as a reminder that you have something on the stove. Make sure to keep a
kitchen fire extinguisher that's rated for all types of fires, and check that
smoke detectors are working.
If you're planning to deep-fry your holiday turkey, do it outside, on a flat,
level surface at least 10 feet from the house.
The incidence of candle fires is four times
higher during December than during other months. According to the National Fire
Protection Association (http://www.NFPA.ORG), four of the five most dangerous
days of the year for residential candle fires are Christmas/Christmas Eve and
New Year's/New Year's Eve. (The fifth is Halloween.)
To reduce the danger, maintain about a foot of space between the candle and
anything that can burn. Set candles on sturdy bases or cover with hurricane
globes. Never leave flames unattended. Before bed, walk through each room to
make sure candles are blown out. For atmosphere without worry, consider
flameless LED candles.
It takes less than 30 seconds for a dry
tree to engulf a room in flames, according to the Building and Fire Research
Laboratory of the National Institute for Standards and Technology
(http://www.NIST.GOV). "They make turpentine out of pine trees,"
notes Tom Olshanski, spokesman for the U.S. Fire Administration
(http://www.USFA.DHS.GOV). "A Christmas tree is almost explosive when it
To minimize risk, buy a fresh tree with intact needles, get a fresh cut on the
trunk, and water it every day. A well-watered tree is almost impossible to
ignite. Keep the tree away from heat sources, such as a fireplace or radiator,
and out of traffic patterns. If you're using live garlands and other greenery,
keep them at least three feet away from heating sources.
No matter how well the tree is watered, it will start to dry out after about
four weeks, Olshanski says, so take it down after the holidays. Artificial
trees don't pose much of a fire hazard; just make sure yours is
Inspect light strings
throw out any with frayed or cracked wires or broken sockets. When decorating,
don't run more than three strings of lights end to end. "Stacking the
plugs is much safer when you're using a large quantity of lights,"
explains Brian L. Vogt, director of education for holiday lighting firm
Christmas Décor. Extension cords should be in good condition and
UL-rated for indoor or outdoor use. Check outdoor receptacles to make sure the
ground fault interrupters don't trip. If they trip repeatedly, Vogt says, that's
a sign that they need to be replaced.
When hanging lights outside, avoid using nails or staples, which can damage the
wiring and increase the risk of a fire. Instead, use UL-rated clips or hangers.
And take lights down within 90 days, says John Drengenberg, director of
consumer safety for Underwriters Laboratories. "If you leave them up all
year round, squirrels chew on them and they get damaged by weather."
Kids playing with matches
The number of blazes--and, tragically, the
number of deaths--caused by children playing with fire goes up significantly
during the holidays. From January through March, 13% of fire deaths are the
result of children playing with fire, the USFA reports; in December, that
percentage doubles. So keep matches and lighters out of kids' reach. "We
tend to underestimate the power of these tools," says Meri-K Appy,
president of the nonprofit Home Safety Council
(http://www.HOMESAFETYCOUNCIL.ORG). "A match or lighter could be more
deadly than a loaded gun in the hands of a small child."
Soot can harden on chimney walls as
flammable creosote, so before the fireplace season begins, have your chimney
inspected to see if it needs cleaning. Screen the fireplace to prevent embers
from popping out onto the floor or carpet, and never use flammable liquids to
start a fire in the fireplace. Only burn seasoned wood--no wrapping paper.
When cleaning out the fireplace, put embers in a metal container and set them
outside to cool for 24 hours before disposal.
Pat Curry is a former senior editor at BUILDER, the official magazine of the
National Association of Home Builders, and a frequent contributor to real
estate and home-building publications.